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Storage School 丨 BIOS boot mode how to properly match the hard disk partition table

日期: 2018-07-06
浏览次数: 124

   The weekly knowledge of the Swiss Storage School is presented on time for everyone. I wonder if everyone is familiar with the installation? Will you install the system yourself? Do you know the BIOS boot mode? The newly installed system is not working properly? Today, I will introduce some necessary knowledge to understand before installing the system. We mainly introduce from four aspects:

First, the BIOS startup type

Second, the hard disk partition: MBR and GPT partition table

Third, the hard disk partition and BIOS boot type are correctly matched

Fourth, the hard disk initialization partition and system installation


   Followed by Xiaoxue into the school.

   

BIOS boot type

   At present, there are two main types of system startup: traditional Legacy startup and new UEFI startup.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配

   When Legacy starts booting the Windows operating system, it imports the BCD (Startup Settings Data) file in the boot folder of the root directory through the bootmgr (boot manager) file under the active primary partition, and then the BCD file is configured according to its own configuration. Load the system startup file winload.exe (location: root directory \Windows\system32\winload.exe) to start the system. A BCD file can load multiple system startup files to boot multiple systems.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配

  UEFI's full name is Unified Extensible Firmware Interface, which is a unified and extensible firmware interface. It is based on the EFI 1.10 standard. It is worth noting that before UEFI was officially established, Intel began to actively promote the traditional BIOS upgrade solution. Finally, the transition plan EFI standard was established. Until 2007, Intel gave the EFI standard improvement and improvement work to the Unified EFI Form for full responsibility, and the EFI standard was officially renamed UEFI.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配


Compared with the traditional BIOS, the biggest difference between UEFI is:

   

     1. The code 99% is completed by C language;

     2. Change the previous interrupt, hardware port operation method, and adopt the new way of Driver/protocol;

     3. X86 real mode will not be supported, but Flat mode will be used directly (that is, DOS cannot be used. Some EFI or UEFI can be used because of compatibility, but this part is not part of UEFI definition);

     4. The output is no longer a simple binary code, changed to Removable Binary Drivers;

     5. OS startup is no longer to call Int19, but directly use protocol/device Path;

     6. For the development of third parties, the former can basically not do it, unless it participates in the design of the BIOS, but it is also limited by the size of the ROM, and the latter is much more convenient;

     7. Make up for the lack of support for new hardware in the BIOS.



   Hard disk partition: MBR and GPT partition table

   The new hard disk (uninitialized) must be aligned for partitioning before use. The hard disk initialization partition includes MBR and GPT.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配

   The MBR full name Master Boot Record was introduced in IBM PC DOS 2.0 in 1983. It exists in a special boot sector at the beginning of the drive. This sector contains the logical partition information of the boot recorder and drive of the installed operating system. So it is called 'master boot record.' The MBR supports up to 2.2TB of disk and cannot handle disks larger than 2.2TB. MBR also supports only up to 4 primary partitions. If you want more partitions, you need to create a so-called extended partition and create a logical partition in it.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配

   GPT stands for Globally Unique Identifier Partition Table, which is the GUID partition table. In order to solve the problem of hardware development, the disk capacity and the number of partitions of MBR cannot meet the requirements of hardware development. Its primary task is to break the limitation of 2.2TB partition and support up to 18EB partition. In terms of the number of partitions, GPT will assign a globally unique identifier to each partition. In theory, GPT supports an unlimited number of disk partitions. However, due to system limitations on Windows systems, it can only support up to 128 disk partitions. Meet the storage needs of all users. And its launch is also complementary to UEFI startup. At the same time, you need to pay attention to the use of GPT partition form and UEFI startup, you need to allocate ESP partition and recovery partition, otherwise the operating system cannot be started normally.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配


   The hard disk partition is correctly matched with the BIOS boot type.

   Knowing the boot method, you must know that the disk partition and boot mode must correspond to the successful booting of the system. The combination of boot mode + disk partition table is:Legacy BIOS+MBR和UEFIBIOS+GPT。


   Legacy startup does not recognize the GPT partition table format, so there is no Legacy startup + GPT combination; UEFI startup can identify both MBR partition and GPT partition, so under UEFI, both MBR and GPT disks can be used to boot the operating system. However, due to Microsoft restrictions, UEFI can only be installed on a disk in the form of a GPT partition. At the same time, the operating system must be a 64-bit system. UEFI does not support 32-bit systems.

 

  UEFI and GPT are complementary, and both are indispensable. To use UEFI boot mode, it must be in the form of GTP partition. The UEFI boot mode greatly reduces the system boot time and sleep wake-up time, and has become the default boot boot mode for major motherboard manufacturers and notebook vendors.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配


   Hard disk initialization partition and system installation

   After a brief understanding of the hard disk partition table and boot type, we continue to understand how to partition the hard disk to install the system. At present, most computers use UEFI boot, but the original WIN7 system does not support UEFI boot mode. If you want to install WIN7 system, you need to convert the boot type to Legacy startup type or check the network tutorial to modify the installation package. To increase support for UEFI boot.

 存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配

   We recommend to install the original WIN10 operating system. When installing the original WIN10 system, the installer will automatically initialize the hard disk to the corresponding partition form according to the BIOS startup mode. If your computer is booted by Legacy, the installer will automatically set the hard disk partition format to MBR. If your computer uses UEFI boot mode, the installer will automatically set the hard disk partition format to GPT and automatically Allocate the required ESP partition and recovery partition in the GPT partition form. We recommend using the burning tool to burn the original WIN10 system to a USB flash drive, and the BIOS is set to UEFI boot. The system is installed by UEFI to start the WIN10 installer, which is the most worry-free solution for using UEFI Quick Start.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配

   In addition, the most widely used U disk PE boot disk to enter the PE system to complete the rapid installation of the computer system, whether it is a new machine or because of system damage and need to reinstall the system, this is a convenient and easy to install method. We recommend using the latest WIN10 PE to install the operating system.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配

   After we enter the PE system, we must first use the DiskGenius partitioning tool or the Proud partition assistant to initialize the partition of the hard disk that needs to be installed. Personally, you can use the partition assistant tool. The reason is that entering the system through the UEFI boot type requires setting the hard disk as a GPT partition. In the GPT partition, ESP partitioning is also required. Using the DiskGenius partition may require manual ESP partitioning. Said, it is very troublesome. If you use the Pride partition assistant, it will automatically create an ESP partition, etc., which is convenient to use.

存储学堂丨BIOS启动模式如何与硬盘分区表正确搭配

   After the hard disk partition is executed, return to the PE system desktop and use the installation tool of the PE system to select the system image or ISO file for operating system installation. After the system is installed, restart it to enter the newly installed operating system.


   When you can't boot after using the new SSD to install the operating system normally, it is recommended that you check whether the solid partition form corresponds to the Legacy/UEFI boot type in the BIOS, and don't forget to ensure that the AHCI function is enabled and the solid state is enabled. The performance of the hard disk is fully utilized.


   After reading the above knowledge, is there a clearer understanding of the installation? Installed can be put together, quickly start the Swiss potential storage products, open your new installed skills.


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  About Ramsta  


Ruishi International Headquarters is located in Hong Kong and Taiwan. It has set up a research and development center in Shenzhen. It has set up a sales company in Shenzhen. It has a storage product R&D and manufacturing base in Taiwan and Shenzhen. It is committed to the research and development and manufacturing of high-end, cutting-edge storage products. Rui Shi established the Greater China Marketing Center in Shenzhen. As a professional storage product R&D, manufacturing and sales integration service provider, Ruishi currently has a place in the SSD solid state drive, DARM module memory, TF flash card and other series of storage products.


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